Mongolian Mythology: Legends, Heroes & Rites 15 Facts

Get to know with us the Mongolian Mythology. A region with rich traditions influenced by multiple cultures and millinery religions.

mongolia mythology
Genghis Khan

Mongolian Mythology

Mongolian mythology is deeply rooted in its history, culture and religion. Together, historical and religious influences have shaped the rich mythology of this region, with a tapestry of gods, heroes, nature spirits and ritual practices that reflect the complexity and diversity of its cultural heritage.


Tengriism is the ancient religion of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples, who worshipped Tengri, the god of the sky. This animistic and shamanistic religion was central to the spiritual life of the Mongols before the arrival of Buddhism and had a great influence on their mythology. According to this belief, heaven and earth are interconnected and there is a strong emphasis on reverence for nature and the spirits of ancestors.


Shamanism has played an essential role in Mongolian spirituality. Shamans are important figures who act as intermediaries between the human world and the spiritual world, performing rituals, healings and practices to maintain the balance between these two planes.


Beginning in the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism became a significant influence in Mongolia. The introduction of Buddhism led to the coexistence of this religion with pre-existing tengriistic and shamanistic beliefs, resulting in a unique amalgam of religious and mythological traditions.

Historical influences

Mongolia’s history, marked by conquests and migrations, also influenced its mythology. Historical figures, such as Genghis Khan, are revered and have acquired an almost mythical status in Mongolian culture, which is reflected in mythology and stories passed down orally over the centuries.

Relations with neighboring cultures

Interactions with neighboring cultures, such as those of China, Russia and Siberian tribes, have also influenced Mongolian mythology, bringing elements of their own traditions that merged with local mythology.

Mongolian myths and legends

Mongolian mythology is filled with a variety of myths and legends that have been passed down through generations. These myths and legends are just a few examples of the rich stories that are part of Mongolian folklore and mythology. They have been passed down orally over the centuries and continue to be important in Mongolian culture to this day.

The Birth of Genghis Khan

There are several stories and myths about the birth of Genghis Khan, the famous Mongol leader. One of the most popular accounts is that his mother, Hoelun, had a dream in which the sun rested on her womb, symbolizing the birth of a great leader. This contributed to the belief that Genghis Khan was destined for an extraordinary destiny from conception.

The Eternal Blue Sky (Tenger)

According to Mongolian mythology, the Tenger is the eternal blue sky, where deities and spirits reside. The Tenger is believed to influence people’s daily lives and can bring good fortune or misfortune, depending on how it is treated.


The Legend of the Blue Unicorn

This myth tells the story of a blue unicorn that possesses magical powers and lives in the mountains of Mongolia. It is said that those who manage to see it obtain good luck and spiritual protection.

Heroes of Mongolian Mythology

There are several stories about mythical heroes in Mongolian mythology, such as Geser Khan, a legendary hero who faced numerous challenges and enemies in his adventures. Stories about Geser Khan often involve elements of magic, epic battles and heroic feats.

Monsters of Mongolia

In Mongolian mythology and folklore, there are several legendary creatures and monsters that are part of the stories passed down through time. These monsters and legendary beings are part of Mongolia’s rich folklore and mythology. Their stories not only entertain, but also convey moral lessons and advice on how to face and respect the forces of nature and the spirit world.

Souls and Goblins (Kharaan Souls)

They are believed to be evil spirits or goblins that dwell in nature, such as in the mountains or in the waters. It is said that these beings can cause trouble or misfortune to people if they are not treated with respect.


This mythological being is described as a kind of giant ogre or demon that feeds on human flesh. According to legend, he lives in the mountains and is feared for his ferocity and voracious appetite for humans.


He is described as a dragon-like monster that inhabits the waters. According to legends, Gurumapa is responsible for causing storms and tempests when angry, and is believed to wreak havoc on travelers and fishermen.

gurumapa - Mongolian Mythology


This mythological being is a kind of malevolent spirit believed to inhabit the forests. It is said to have the ability to shape-shift and deceive unsuspecting travelers.


These are evil spirits in the form of animals, such as wolves or birds, which are believed to have the ability to possess people and cause disease or misfortune.

Mongolian Mythology and Highlights

Mongolia, with its vast landscape and rich history, has several places that have mythological significance in its culture. These places are often related to legends, traditional beliefs or stories passed down orally over generations. These places are just a few examples of sites in Mongolia that have special significance in the country’s mythology and culture.

Mount Burkhan Khaldun

This sacred mountain in the Khentii region is considered one of the most important places in Mongolian mythology. It is believed to be the birthplace and final resting place of Genghis Khan. This site is considered sacred and has special significance in Mongolian history and mythology.

Lake Hövsgöl

In addition to its status as one of Mongolia’s most beautiful natural sites, Lake Khovsgol has a rich mythological history. It is said to be inhabited by mystical beings and to have healing properties. There are many legends about the creation of this lake and the creatures that reside in it.

KHOVSGOL Mongolian Mythology
Lake Hövsgöl

Amarbayasgalant Cave

This cave is famous for its unique rock formations and its connection to Mongolian mythology. The cave is believed to have spiritual significance and numerous stories and myths have been associated with this sacred place.

Mount Otgontenger

It is the highest mountain in the Khangai range and is considered sacred in Mongolian tradition. According to local mythology, this mountain is home to numerous spirits and deities.

Orkhon Valley

This valley, inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, is a significant historical and cultural site in Mongolia. In addition to its historical aspects, the valley has mythological significance and is associated with ancient legends and myths.

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