Middle Eastern Mythology: History, Gods, Legends +20 Facts

We show you the Middle Eastern Mythology. A culture of great history with fascinating myths that have influenced many cultures.

al buraq - Middle Eastern Mythology

Middle Eastern Mythology

The mythology of the Middle East is one of the most extensive worldwide. This is because it includes a variety of myths and legends that cover a large geographical region, where each country contains its own mythology.

Primarily Middle Eastern mythology is classified into three groups: the mythology of the ancient Near East, Abrahamic mythology and the mythology of the different individual ethnicities that exist in the Middle East.

Where each of these regions, which make up the Middle East; share beliefs, myths and legends throughout the territory and from their origins. Even most of these myths and legends are preserved as part of the current Middle Eastern culture.

History of Middle Eastern Mythology

The entire Middle East, refers to the area encompassing what is now: Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Israel, Egypt, part of Israel and part of Iran. It is shaped and defined as the Middle East from the Bronze Age to the 6th century B.C., when the expansion of the Persians began.

In ancient times, the Middle East meant the constitution of an “ecumene”, which has its origin in the Greek word “oikoumene”. These words mean inhabited world.

The different archaeological excavations made through the years, have demonstrated the exchange of cultures in the history of the Middle East mythology, commerce and shared beliefs among the Oriental peoples.

Among these shared activities or beliefs are: pottery, trade, architecture, priesthood, priesthood, and the ancient traditions of the Middle East. Architecture, priesthood, sacrifices, rituals, among others. Geographical location and navigation were two important factors in the spread of these beliefs and religious activities throughout the Middle East.

Middle Eastern Mythology
Middle East map

Religion in Middle Eastern Mythology

The different religious genres that have developed throughout the history of the Middle East, have the main characteristic of having remained and influenced its culture until today.

However, many of the types of religion that exist today in the Middle East are successions or have their origin in the main Western religions. Which, had a great influence in the oriental culture.

These original religions are Christianity, Judaism and Islam. It is also worth mentioning the influence of Zoroastrianism and Parsiism. But it is a quite concrete fact that in modern times the Arinna and Baal religions are still strong.

Gods and other beings of Middle Eastern mythology

Jesus Tomb
Jesus Tomb
  • Jesus: other names are Christ, Jehovah, Jesus Christ, among others. he represents the deity of love.
  • Satan: he is called Devil, Ha-Satan, Diabolos; and he is the god of evil.
  • Yahweh: he is known as Jahweh, and is the god of creation in Middle Eastern mythology.
  • Ahura-mazda: called Ormazd, is the god of light.
  • Beelzebub: is a demon, who is considered the prince of hell.
  • Inara: is the goddess of protection, specifically of wild animals.
  • Ashur: is the god of war in Middle Eastern mythology.
  • Lilith: is a female demon of Middle Eastern mythology.
  • Moses: also called Musa, he was a great prophet of Judaism and a legendary mortal.
  • Mithra: is the goddess of truth and judgment.
  • Leviathan: is a terrifying mystical creature very famous in the mythology of the Middle East.
  • Azhi-dahaka: is a three-headed dragon, who wishes to destroy the world.
  • Aion: is the god of time.

Myths and Legends of Middle Eastern Mythology

The Abacus

The abacus was the first adding machine in history. Although there is currently no exact record of who invented the abacus, it is believed that it may have originated with the Babylonians. And it was invented around 3000 BC.



This is a female evil spirit from Middle Eastern mythology; specifically it belongs to the Sumerian mythology group. It is believed that she sought out misbehaving men in order to spawn faceless demons.

After a while, these monstrous demons, developed and had the necessary strength to take over the body of their parents. And in this way they returned to hell.


Also called “the lion lady”. In recent excavations have been discovered, specifically in the Middle East area of Canaan; records that speak about Asherah. Where it is evidenced its close relationship with the god Yahweh. It is believed that they were a divine couple, which were responsible for creating the universe.

Middle Eastern Mythology
Asera, the lion lady. Middle Eastern mythology


This is a place that served as a brothel in ancient times, located in the area of Asia Minor. In this place many remains of male babies were found in the sewers. According to beliefs, it was the children of prostitutes, who decided to give birth to children.

When they turned out to be girls, they were left alive to raise them and turn them into future prostitutes. On the other hand, if they turned out to be boys, they were thrown into the sewers since they could not obtain any benefit from them.


His name has the meaning “lightning bolt”. It is a mythological creature from the Middle East, which became very famous for being related to Muhammad’s journey to the seventh heaven.

In Middle Eastern mythology, the Buraq is described as a beast that carried a bridle, and also possessed a very good-looking face. He was of a tall size and white in color.

He also had very long ears, and two wings that gave him the strength to fly. In some legends his face is related to that of a male human and in others to a female one.

Middle Eastern Mythology
Al Buraq, Middle Eastern mythology


They are called “genies”, and are part of Middle Eastern mythology. They became very famous through the stories of the Arabian Nights. Nowadays they are very popular in the oriental culture, starring in many of its myths and legends.

They have many abilities, and are found between angels and humans. There are four types of Djinn: the Ifrit, the Nasna, the Marid and the Shaytan. They can be both good and evil.

Middle Eastern Mythology
Djinn, Middle Eastern mythology


Middle Eastern mythology, is filled with an extensive diversity of deities. Due to the differences that exist between the types of culture of each of the regions that comprise the Middle East, which is composed of all of southwestern Asia. There is a long list of gods and other mystical beings.

One of the main things that characterizes the mythology of the Middle East, is the amount of myths and legends that even today have endured. According to the beliefs of the people of the East, they say that these are based on real life events.

The main protagonists of the myths and legends of this mythology are their gods and mystical creatures. In them is always captured, the creation of the present and the natural world.

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